History of Kaaba Sharif
The virtues of these two places-Mecca and the Ka'ba has been expounded in many verses of the Qur'aan and the Hadith. We shall now look at a few of these. Allah says in the Qur' an "The first House (of worship) appointed for men was that at Bakka, full of blessing. On this Hazrat Ali Radi Allahu Ta’ala Anhu said that houses for residence had been erected before the Ka'ba but the very first place for Hs worship was this one. It is reported above by many companions that this portion of the earth first appeared above the water after its creation and from it the rest of the earth was spread and rolled out, in the same manner as a roti is rolled out by a roller, to a large round flat bread, from a small round piece of dough.
'And remember Ibrahim and Ismail raised the foundation of the House (with this prayer) "Our Lord, accept this service from us, for Thou art All-hearing, All-knowing'. (2-124)
Hazrat Ibrahim Alaihi Salam had erected the Ka'ba. There can be no doubt that this should be the most virtuous place because Allah Himself ordered its erection. Hazrat Jibra'eel Alaihi Salam drew the plan. A man of the stature of Hazrat Ibrahim Alaihi Salam was the mason while the man of the calibre of Hazrat Ismail Alaihi Salam had been his assistant. Does that not show its importance and virtuous origin?
According to a report by Hazrat Ibn Saad Radi Allahu Ta’ala Anhu, Hazrat Ibrahim Alaihi Salam at that time reached the ripe old age of one hundred years, while Hazrat Ismail Alaihi Salam had been thirty years old. (Durre Mansoor)
The Holy Ka'ba had been re-erected quite a few time. About some of these times the ulama are agreed whereas there is some doubt about its erection at other times. For those interested in the historical issue of the Ka'ba's erection see my Arabic commentary on Mu'atta Imaam Maalik called Awjaz al Massalik. A short synopsis of what is written there follows here: 1. The well know accepted view of the ulama is that it was originally erected by the angels about two thousand years prior to the creation of Hazrat Aadam Alaihi Salam some ulama even state that this was not the first time the Ka'ba was built.
The first time was when Allah Himself caused it to be with His command; the angels had no part in its erection.
2. Secondly we have the well-known view of our Muhadditheen and historians that Hazrat Aadam Alaihi Salam erected it again during his lifetime. According to reports he gathered rocks from five different mountains; Lebanon, Mount Sinai, Mount Zaita, Mount Judi and Mount Hira. Another version states that Hazrat Aadam Alaihi Salam merely laid the foundation and from heaven the Baitul Mamoor was descended and placed over it. Then at the death of Hazrat Aadam Alaihi Salam or at the time of the flood (During the time of Hazrat Nooh Alaihi Salam) the Baitul Mamoor was again lifted up to the heaven.
3. It is also said that Sheeth Alaihi Salam, the son of Hazrat Aadam Alaihi Salam erected the Ka'ba.
4. Then we have its erection on the same place by Hazrat Ibrahim Alaihi Salam as stated above. It is said that this structure was 9 yards high, 30 yards long and 23 yards wide. (30x23x9 yds). It had no roof. On the inside there was to be a well, wherein was placed the sacrifices offered at Ka'ba.
5. Erection by the Amaaliqah.
6. Erection by the Jurhum. Both were Arab tribes who were descendants of Hazrat Nooh Alaihi Salam
7. Erection by Qusay, who is one of the forefathers of Rasulullah Sallalahu Alaihi Wasallam five generation earlier.
8. Erection by the Quraish during the youth of Rasulullah Sallalahu Alaihi Wasallam. There are many reports about this hadith literature. At that time our Rasool Sallalahu Alaihi Wasallam used to be 25 years old, and he also took part in the work. (Some say he was 35 years old). He used to lift up stones on his shoulders to carry to the site. This was also a time when a tremendous quarrel took place among the tribes of Quraish regarding who was to place the Hajar-al-aswad (the black stone) in its place.
9. Every one of the tribes desired the honor and was prepared to let the sword decide amongst them. Rasulullah Sallalahu Alaihi Wasallam arbitrated and placed before them his plan that the black stone be placed on his shawl. Every tribe then nominated one man to lift a portion of the shawl with the stone on it, carrying it to its rightful place. Then he asked to jointly appoint him as their agent to place the black stone in its place on their behalf. This they did and Rasulullah Sallalahu Alaihi Wasallam himself placed the black stone where it rests today. At that time Quraish made an oath that never will they allow any ill-acquired earnings of doubtful and haraam sources to touch it. The result was that not sufficient halaal earnings could be gathered to complete the Ka'ba with the result that the portion where the Hateem is today, was left incomplete, and a section of the original Ka'ba was left outside. They also made the door of the Ka'ba much higher than was the case in the structure of Hazrat Ibrahim Alaihi Salam this meant that not everyone could enter it. In fact a staircase has to be used, Rasulullah Sallalahu Alaihi Wasallam desired that the Ka'ba should again be brought to the same as was the original Ka'ba, but he never found the opportunity.
In the year 64 Hijri the forces of Yazid attacked Mecca against Hazrat Abdullah bin Zubair Radi Allahu Ta’ala Anhu Fire was rained down on Mecca from the outside with catapults with the result that Ka'ba covering cloth was burnt and the walls were damaged. During the siege Yazid died and the forces lifted the siege. Hazrat Abdullah bin Zubair Radi Allahu Ta’ala Anhu then re-erected the Ka'ba. This time according to the desire of Rasulullah Sallalahu Alaihi Wasallam, the Hateem was included inside the ka'ba, with the door on the ground. Now, whoever desired could enter the Ka'ba.
Another door was also placed on the opposite side, so that people could enter from the one side and leave from the other. This erection started in Jumaadil Ula, 64 Hijri and was completed in Rajab 64 or 65 Hijri. By way of showing his great happiness at the completion of this noble work Hazrat Abdullah bin Zubair Radi Allahu Ta’ala Anhu invited many people to a feast for which one hundred camels were slaughtered. Although Ibn Zubair brought the Ka'ba back to the original proportions there is one thing that makes us sad. Inside the Ka'ba there had always been the horns of the sheep which were sent from Jannat, which Hazrat Ibrahim A.S sacrificed in place of his son Hazrat Ismail Alaihi Salam During the attack on the Ka'ba these horns were burnt and lost to the world.
10. Later Hajjaaj Ibn Yousuf an army commander, influenced the Khalifa Abdul Malik bin Marwaan saying that the Ka'ba has been changed by Ibn Zubair to something that was not the Ka'ba of the time of Rasulullah Sallalahu Alaihi Wasallam. The Khalif gave permission that it should again be changed. The result was that whereas the newly placed door was closed the western door was again lifted up above the ground. Similarly the wall to include the Hateem was again broken down and the Hateem left outside. The roof was also lifted higher. These changes were made in the year 73 Hijri. For many years the Ka'ba remained with three walls erected by Ibna Zubair and one wall by Hajjaj. Many are of the opinion that this is the case to this day. Whatever was done afterwards was repair work and not new construction. Haroon-al-Rashid wanted to bring the Ka'ba back to what Abdullah bin Zubair had done, but Hazrat Imaam Maalik Radi Allahu Ta’ala Anhu insisted that it should not be done. He feared that tempering with the structure of the Ka'ba would become subject to the whims and wishes of kings and rulers.
11. In the year 1021 Hijri Sultan Ahmad of Turkey made some repairs to the Ka'ba. The roof was changed and wherever the walls had appeared to weaken, it was strengthened, especially the section called the Meezabur Rahman. Only repair work was done.
12. In the year 1039 Hijri after a storm had caused some of the walls to fall down, Sultan Murad had those walls re-erected. Actually it appears that only those walls and not the others well re-erected. For this reason some historians consider this work mere repair work while some are of the opinion that the Ka'ba was actually rebuilt.
Hazrat Shah Abdul Aziz Rah, in his tafseer stated that except for the wall on the side of the Hajar-al -Aswad, all the other walls were re-erected, so that today the Ka'ba stands with one wall erected originally by Hazrat Abdullah bin Zubair Radi Allahu Ta’ala Anhu. And three walls by the Turkish Sultan Murad. During the year 1367 Hijri Sultan Ibn Saud made certain repairs whereby he renewed the door frames and the doorsills of the Ka'ba, and carried out general repair work.
'Allah made the Ka'ba, the sacred house an asylum of security for man'.
Hazrat Ibn Abbaas Radi Allahu Ta’ala Anhu stated that asylum and sacurity here entioned actually signifies the keeping up of their religion and the monuments of Haj.
Another meaning is that those entering the Holy Ka'ba become safe from attack. Hazrat Hasan-al-Basari Radi Allahu Ta’ala Anhu while reciting this verse said: "That this religion will remains standing firmly as long as the Haj is made to this house and as long as people turn their faces in prayer towards the Ka'ba". (Durre Mansoor)
Hazrat Imam Ghazali Radi Allahu Ta’ala Anhu quotes Hazrat Ali Radi Allahu Ta’ala Anhu saying: "When Allah shall intend destroying the world, he shall first cause the Ka'ba to be demolished. Then shall the world be destroyed." (Ithaaf)
Further it is quite a common fact in Hadith literature that the destruction of the Ka'ba is a sign of the very nearness of Qiyaamat. Rasululah Sallalahu Alaihi Wasallam said:
'It is as if I see those Abysinians who will break the Ka'ba stones by stone'.
Another hadith states: 'People shall remain protected as long as they continue to honor and respect the Ka'ba and Mecca as the should. And when they shall stop, they shall be destroyed.' (Mishkaat)
Another Hadith says: 'Qiyaamat shall not come as long as the Hajar-al-Aswad, and the Maqaam Ibrahim are not lifted up from this world.'
According to another Hadith one of the signs of Qiyaamat shall be the fact that Abysinians shall attack Mecca and the Ka'ba. It shall be such a vast army that when the front section of it shall be at the black stone, the hind part of the army shall be at the sea in Jeddah. They shall break the Ka'ba stone by stone. (Ithaaf)
MOHAMMAD ZAKARIYA KANDHLAVI