Poor- Due (Zakat - Ek Farz)
Poor- Due (Zakat - Ek Farz)
Many deeds are done by people without knowing the reward or punishment of that deed, even though the Holy Qur’an provides the concept of reward and punishment for those deeds. Let us look at the concept of spending money in the path of Allah Ta’ala, in order to earn His Pleasure in light of the Qur’an. He states, “O Believers! Give something of your pure earnings …” (Surah Baqarah, Verse 267).
Generosity, Benevolence, Avarice and Miserliness
Generosity (Sakhawat) means to spend upon yourselves as well as spending upon others. Benevolence (Jood) means to not benefit yourself from your wealth but using it to benefit others. Avarice, or greed (Bukhl), means to benefit from your wealth yourself but not help others with it. Miserliness (Shuh) means to neither benefit yourself with your wealth, nor help others with it.
What is Spending (Infaq)?
To spend from lawfully earned income in the path of Allah Ta’ala is called ‘Infaq’; there are two types of spending, compulsory and voluntary. Compulsory Spending This includes Poor-Due (Zakat), compulsory charity (Fitr), and all other charity which is compulsory on those who have the means and the wealth.
This includes all forms of spending which are not included in compulsory spending.
Why Are We Ordered to Spend?
You may now be thinking that a person toils and works hard to earn money himself and then must spend it on others, why is that? Remember! Allah Ta’ala has granted some of His slaves supremacy over others in certain areas. For example, he has granted supremacy to Scholars over those who are illiterate on the basis of knowledge, and it is necessary for the Scholar to not only use the knowledge to benefit himself, but rather he should try and take others out of the darkness of illiteracy as well. In the same way, it is necessary for a wealthy person to spend some of his wealth on the poor and those who can not afford the necessities of life. Rather, many respectable people hide their poverty from others, and a rich person should seek them out and help them in such a way that their pride and reputation is not wounded or hurt; the supplications that they give from their hearts will enter the door of Acceptance and will be a means to grant us freedom from the fire.
Who Should We Spend On?
Whatever you spend will be included in goodness, however, spend on your parents, close relatives, on orphans, on the needy and on travellers, and that whatever you spend is not hidden from Allah Ta’ala. Remember! On the Day of Judgement, we will not even be asked by the Lord to account for the money that we spend on parents, family members, Iftaari and Sehri. In terms of spending from our wealth, our parents have the greatest right. Remember! This spending is part of voluntary spending. If there are poor and underprivileged people amongst our relatives, then it is essential for us to find them and help them because the Qur’an has stated that their right is greater than other needy people. In the same manner, we should spend on orphans, the needy and the travellers.
Amongst them, we should especially spend on those students who leave their homes, towns, friends and parents in the quest for knowledge and are guests of Rasool Allah Sallalahu Alaihi Wasallam . This does not mean that we should give everything that we have and then sit with folded arms. Rasool Allah Sallalahu Alaihi Wasallam explained it clearly when he was asked a question on the subject, and he stated that the best charity is that which is given after you have kept what you need for your needs and requirements
Rasool Allah Sallalahu Alaihi Wasallam urged people to spend in the Path of Allah Ta’ala and explained the importance of it. Hazrat Asma Radiallaho Ta’ala ‘Anha states that Rasool Allah Sallalahu Alaihi Wasallam said, “Spend abundantly and Allah Ta’ala will grant you abundantly. Do not avoid spending in Allah Ta’ala’s Path otherwise He will impede you. Give as much charity as you are able to.” (Bukhari & Muslim)
Do Not Ruin Your Charity
Keep in mind the habits and practices of Rasool Allah Sallalahu Alaihi Wasallam and display intense generosity and kindness in the month of Ramadhan, but beware! After spending on the poor and needy, never remind them or keep speaking about favours conferred, otherwise everything will go to waste and will be ruined.
In the month of Ramadhan, the reward for voluntary worship is equivalent to compulsory worship, and the reward for compulsory worship is the equivalent of 70 compulsory worships. Therefore, we should worship the Lord and prove our obedience to His order by taking out and paying our Poor‐due in the month of Ramadhan.
Types of Charity
There are two types of charity. The first is compulsory charity which includes Poor-due (Zakat), one‐tenth (‘Ushr), Fitr and charity of evil eye (Sadqa e Nazar) etc. The other type of charity is voluntary which includes all charity that is not included in compulsory charity.
To take out poor due from our wealth once a year is compulsory upon us just as Prayers, Fasting and Pilgrimage is compulsory upon us. If a person denies the fact that it is compulsory, he becomes a disbeliever, and if someone does not pay it then he is a great sinner and is deserving of the Punishment of Allah Ta’ala. In the month of Ramadhan, the reward for voluntary worship is equivalent to compulsory worship, and the reward for compulsory worship is the equivalent of 70 compulsory worships. Therefore, we should worship the Lord and prove our obedience to His order by taking out and paying our Poor-due in the month of Ramadhan. Let us mention some important points about Zakat so that the enthusiasm for paying it is increased in our hearts.
Literal and Religious Meaning of the Word Zakat
According to the dictionary, the word “Zakat” has two meanings. One of its meanings is ‘clean’, ‘pure’ or ‘to be clean’ or ‘to purify’. The other meaning is to ‘grow’, ‘expand’ and ‘multiply’. Because payment of Zakat results in increased wealth, the wealth given in
the path of Allah Ta’ala is called Zakat.
In religious terms, Zakat means to take a percentage of your wealth that has been decided by Islamic law, and to make a poor person the owner of that wealth.
Whom is Zakat Compulsory Upon?
Zakat is compulsory upon all sane, mature, free Muslims who own more than the minimum amount (Nisaab) after spending on his necessities, and a full year has passed with that wealth in his possession.
The Minimum Amount (Nisaab) for Zakat
Zakat is compulsory, only if a person owns equal to or more than the ‘’Nisab’’ Zakat is not payable if a person owns less than that. The Nisab for gold is 7.5 tolas (93.312 grams), and the Nisab for Silver is 52.5 tolas (653.184 grams), that it will be Fardh to give Zakah at the rate of 2.5% or one fortieth. (On Rs. 100/- Zakat will be 2.50)
Some Important Issues Regarding Zakat
In Shar’iah (Islamic Law), Zakat means to take a certain percentage of your wealth that had been decided by Shar’iah, and to make poor Muslims owners of that wealth.
* The goods that are kept for business should be evaluated. If the value is equal to or greater than the equivalent of 7.5 tolas (93.312 grams) of gold or 52.5 tolas (653.184 grams) of silver, then Zakat must be paid on these goods. Goods for business include all goods, whether it is a manufacturing plant or livestock. If the items are kept for business, once a full year has passed, Zakat is payable on them.
* If business inventory does not exceed the Nisaab, but you have gold, silver, cash etc. which, if totalled, exceeds the Nisaab then Zakat is payable.
* Zakat is not payable on the value of the house or shop that is rented to another person. However, Zakat is payable on the money that is received as rent after it has been in your possession for one year. If the owner has more than the value of Nisaab beforehand, then the rent money is added to his assets and is not calculated separately. The rent money must be added to the other possessions and Zakat must be paid on all.
* Zakat is not payable on fixtures and fittings in a shop i.e. all the items that are used to help sell goods but are not actually for sale. For example, cabinets, shelves, counter, heater, air conditioner, freezer, cash register, display equipment etc. All these things are in the store but are not sold and are not considered as inventory, and therefore, Zakat is not payable on them.
* There is no Zakat on pearls or precious stones, even if you have many of them. However, if they are for business purposes, then Zakat is necessary.
* One year passing means according to the lunar calendar (cycle of the moon). Zakat must be paid if a person had more than the Nisaab at the beginning of the year and at the end of the year, but did not have more than the Nisaab in the middle part of the year.
* When paying Zakat or separating the wealth, it is a condition that the intention (Niyyah) must be for paying Zakat. Intention means that if asked, one can definitely say that this is for Zakat.
* If you give voluntary charity (Sadqa / Khairaat) all year and then say that ‘All that I gave is Zakat’, this will not be counted as Zakat. Separating the Zakat money will not free you from your obligation until you make a poor person the owner of that wealth and give it to him. If you die before handing the Zakat to a poor person, the Zakat is not annulled and still needs to be paid.
* Zakat money cannot be used for burial or funeral expenses or to build a mosque because a poor person has not been given ownership of that money. If it is essential to use the Zakat money for those purposes then the way to do this is to make a poor person the owner of that wealth, and then he donates it and both people will be rewarded. It is reported in a Hadith that if the wealth passes through a hundred hands then they will all receive the same reward and there will be no reduction in the reward of the original giver.
* It is not necessary to tell a poor person that what is being given is Zakat money; only the intention is necessary on the part of the person giving the Zakat. Even if the poor person is told that this is a loan and the intention is Zakat then the obligation of Zakat will be fulfilled.
* Similarly, if the receiver is told that this is a gift, present, Eid gift to children etc, the Zakat will be fulfilled. Some poor people do not like to take Zakat money, therefore do not use the word Zakat, but make the intention in your heart.
* As well as gold and silver, if the value of any business inventory exceeds the Nisaab, then Zakat is payable on that also – meaning 2.5% of the value of the inventory must be given as Zakat.
What Things is Zakat Not Payable On?
There are certain things upon which Zakat is not payable, no matter how much is owned; details are as follows: Primary residence (the house that you live in), pearls, rubies and all similar jewellery, the animals (camels, cows, bulls etc) which are raised for farming, machinery and tools in a factory/workshop, computers that are used for accounting work, calculators, the factory building itself, furniture that is used in the factory/workshop, stationery supplies, shop building, animals on a dairy farm, expensive items that are kept in the home as souvenirs or for remembrance, fish that are kept in a pool or stream for hobby, animals that are reared for personal use, motorbikes for travelling, cars, buses, vehicles that are rented to enable you to work i.e. bicycle, rickshaw, taxi, bus, truck etc. are not liable for Zakat to be paid on them, (however, Zakat must be paid on the income that is earned from them if it exceeds the Nisaab). There is also no Zakat on clothes for personal use,
coat/jacket, sheets and blankets, cap, shoes, watch, home furniture, bed and writing tools etc, no matter how expensive these things are.
In short, Zakat is payable on the things that are bought and sold for business purposes. There is no Zakat on the equipment and tools etc that help you carry out your business, nor is there Zakat on household properties that are used daily.
A husband cannot give Zakat to his wife and a wife cannot give to her husband. If the husband has divorced his wife, and her waiting time has passed (Iddat), then they can give Zakat to each other.
Executive Procedures of Calculating Zakah
The executive procedures for calculating Zakah are represented in the following:
01. Determining the end of the year, for the time at which Zakah is to be calculated. It varies according to the type of property liable to Zakah except for the Zakah due on plants, fruits, metals and natural resources. Zakah becomes due at the time of harvest or on discovering mineral and sea resources.
02. Determining and evaluating the various types of properties owned by a given person who is asked to pay Zakah, and determining what is included in Zakah and thus called "the properties liable to Zakah", or "the Zakah funds".
03. Determining and evaluating the commitments to be paid and deducted from the properties liable to Zakah.
04. Deducting due commitments from properties to determine those liable to Zakah.
05. Determining the minimum amount liable to Zakah according to the type of property or activity.
06. Comparing the value of property stated in Article No. four to the minimum amount liable to Zakah stated in Article No. 5, to decide whether the property will be liable to Zakah or not.
07. Determining the due quota for Zakah, which may be:
a. 2.5% as in Zakah due on gold and silver, trade, used objects, work earnings, profits and minerals, according to the opinion held by the majority of scholars.
b. 5% as in Zakah due on crops and fruits that are irrigated by tools and equipment (with irrigation costs).
c. 10% as in Zakah due on crops and fruits that are irrigated by springs and rain (without irrigation costs).
d. 20% as in Zakah due on mineral resources.
08. Calculating Zakah by multiplying its percentage by the total amount liable to Zakah.
09. Dividing the amount of Zakah as follows:
a. When an enterprise is owned by individuals, the owner of the enterprise is responsible for paying the whole amount of Zakah due.
b. When a firm is owned by partners, the amount of Zakah is divided among the partners according to their shares of the capital.
c. When firms are founded on different sources of funding, the amount of Zakah is to be divided among the number of shares that comprise the business in order to determine the Zakah due on each share. Then, the shares of every shareholder are calculated in order to know the amount due on each one of them.
10. Distribution of Zakah on its various channels in the light of Islamic Law.
11. Showing and revealing the amount of Zakah and its distribution using financial reports and accounts.
NOTE: A person is obliged to pay Zakah on R10 000, namely the sum of Rs. 250. He sets aside this amount with a view to paying his Zakah. The sum of R250 is thereafter lost or stolen in which event the Zakah obligation is not discharged. If the Zakah payer dies after setting aside the sum of R250, it will constitute part of his estate to be transmissible to his heirs.
Re: Poor- Due (Zakat - Ek Farz)
Re: Poor- Due (Zakat - Ek Farz)
thankx 4 sharing....