Life of Hazrat Amir Khusro Rehmatullah Alaih
Ab'ul Hasan Yamin al-Din Khusrau Rehmatullah Alaih, usually known by his pen name as Amir Khusro was the son of Amir Alachin a Turk from Laccheen. His actual name was Saifuddin Mahmood Shamsi. At the invasion of Gengiz Khan he migrated from his native place Kesh near Samarkand to Balkh (Turkey). Saifuddin was the chieftan of Hazara. Shamsuddin Iltamish the King of Delhi welcomed them to his capital. He provided shelter to the dislodged princes artisans, scholars and rich nobles. Saifuddin was among them. It was around 626/ 360 A.H/1226 A.D. In 1230 A.D he was granted afief in the district of Patiali (in Etah District-Uttar Pradesh). He married to BiBi Daulat Naz, who bore him three sons and one daughter, elder Ijajuddeen, Hissamuddeen and Amir Khusro who was born in 652-653 Hijri (1252-53 AD). When he was 9 years of age his father Amir Saifuddeen Mahmud passed away fighting a battle in 660 A.H/1260 A.D. Up to 13 years of age he was in the care of his maternal grandfather Nawaab Imadul Mulk.
When Amir Khusro was twenty years, his grand father who was 113 years old in 670-71 A.H when he left the world. He was disturbed and was looking for an established career. He joined as a soldier in the Army of Malik Chajju - a nephew of Balban. But his poetry brought him in the Assembly of the Royal Court where he was highly honoured. The devoted mother brought him up and little is known about his modest mother Hazrat BiBi Daulat Naz. He grew up as a soldier and a poet.
When he was forty seven years old (698 A.H/1298 A.D.) his mother and brother died. Once, Bughra Khan son of Balban was invited to listen Amir Khusro. He was so enchanted that he bestowed countless gold coins. The prize impaired the relations with his master Chajju Khan. Khusro left him and went to Bughra Khan, where he served for four years and came to fame. In 677 A.H/1277 A.D. Bughra Khan marched towards Bengal to crush the coup and Amir Khusro accompanied him. Bughra Khan was then appointed ruler of Bengal but however Amir Khusro came back to Delhi.
The eldest son Khan Mohd of Balban (who was in Multan) came to Delhi. When he heard about Amir Khusro he invited him to his court. Finally Amir Khusro accompanied him to Multan in 679 A.H/1279 A.D. Multan at that period was the gateway to Hind and a centre place of knowledge and learning. The caravans of scholars, tradesmen and emissaries transited from Baghdad, Arab, Iran to Delhi via Multan. Amir Khusro and Amir Hassan Sijzi were happy under his patronage.Amir Hasan Sijzi was younger to Amir Khusro by two years.
In the year 683A.H./1283A.D Jinar Khan a Mongol, invaded India. Khan Mohd along with many soldiers were killed in a fierceful battles and Amir Khusro came back to Delhi
At the old age of eighty, King Balban called his second son Bughra Khan from Bengal, but he refused to come back to Delhi. After King Balban’s death his grandson Kikabad was made the King of Delhi who was 17 years of age. Khusro remained in his service for two years (686 A.H to 687 A.H/1286 to 1287 A.D.).
After the death of Kikabad, a turk soldier Jalaluddin Khilji took power and became the King. He was a poet and loved poets. Khusro was highly honoured and respected in his Darbar and was known as "AMIR KHUSRO". He was made secretary to the King "Mushaf-Dar". His status was raised to ‘Amarat’; and was given the insigma of a Silver belt and 1200 Tankas annually in lien of his services. The darbar life made Amir Khusro focus more on literary works.
King Khilji ruled for 6 years from 689A.H/1289A.D to 695A.H/1295A.D. He was murdered by the men of Allauddin Khilji, his nephew and son-in-law. Allauddin Khilji then ascended the throne of Delhi on 22nd Zilhaj 695A.H/1295A.D.
Allauddin Khilji ruled for twenty one years. Hazrat Amir Khusro Rehmatullah Alaih enjoyed his patronage and developed much of his works.
After Allauddin Khilji death his son Qutubuddin Mukarak Shah became the King. Amir Khusro wrote a Masnavi on Mubarak Shah as "Nahsi Pahar" (Nine Skies), a historical poetry relating the events of Mubarak Shah.
After Mubarak Shah, Ghyasuddin Tughlaq came to the throne. Amir Khusro wrote a historic Masnavi "Tughlaq Name" on him. Thus all Kings of their period, honoured Amir Khusro as the jewel of their crown. They felt proud of his writing. Thus Amir Khusro served seven Sultans, saw seven Sultanates in his life time. He was also an astronomer and an astrologer.
Path of Sufism
Amir Khusrau Rehmatullah Alaih was a Sufi and disciple of Hazrat Nizamuddin Aulia, Mehboob e ilahi Rehmatullah Alaih. By the order of his Pir/ Sheikh/ Spiritual mentor and guide, he developed Urdu language and was famously known as "father of urdu language". Soon it became the tongue of Sufis both oral and in written forms. Urdu replaced persian language which was used for centuries for administrative work and for bussiness purpose.
It is written in books that when Hazrat Amir Khusrau, went to see His Holiness Hazrat Syed Nizamuddin Aulia Rehmatullah Alaih for the very first time. It is said that young Amir Khusrau Rehmatullah Alaih went to His Holiness khanqah, but did not entered and remained at the door by remarking, "I shall select my "Peer/Spiritual guide" myself, and if it is bestowed with Divine Power he will converse with me even from distance." Thus sitting at the door he composed:
Tu an Shah-e-ke bar aiwan-e-qasrat.
Kabutar gar nashinad baz garded.
Gharib-e mustanande baradar amad.
Be ayat andar un ya baz gardad.
(You are such a mighty King that if a pigeon sits on your palace, it turns into a hawk. An outsider and a needy person has come at your door, please let him know whether he should come in, or go away).
His Holiness who had supernatural powers sent him the following verse in reply:
"Biya yet andarun marde haqiqat,
Kibama yak nafas hamraz gardad,
Agar ablah buwad an mard nadan,
Azan rahe ki amad baz gardad."
(The person who knows the truth may come inside so that we may exchange divine secrets between us for a moment. If that person is ignorant, then he should return on the same path from where he has come here.)
Hazrat Amir Khusrau Rehmatullah Alaih immediately got up and ran to His Holiness and fell on his feet and wept! His Holiness accepted him as his disciple (murid) and gradually the two became inseparable and attached to each other.
Hazrat Amir Khusrau Rehmatullah Alaih reat Sufi, a wealthy merchant who once exchanged all his wealth for a pair of His Holiness Sultan-ul-Mashaikh shoes, an intellectual gaint of many languages, an artist, a prolific author, a genius musician who invented the ‘sitar’, a versatile composer and a true devoted "Mreed/disciple" of Holiness. He was "All-in-One" type of highly amazing mixture of Divine gifts
Once one Mureed asked Hazrat Nizamuddeen Auliya Mehboobe Ilahi Rehmatullah Alaih to give a look of grace as he would to Hazrat Abul Hassan Amir Khusru to which he replied you will have to be like him.
Once Sultan Allauddeen Khilji wanted to meet Hazrat Nizamuddeen Auliya Mehboobe Ilahi Rehmatullah Alaih as he was aware that Hazrat Nizamuddeen Auliya Mehboobe Ilahi Rehmatullah Alaih did not appreciate visits from kings. So he decided to come without informing however Hazrat Abul Hassan Amir Khusru was aware since he was associated to Sultan Allauddeen Khilji. He informed Hazrat Nizamuddeen Auliya Mehboobe Ilahi Rehmatullah Alaih about which made him leave to Pakpattan to visit Baba Fareed’s Rehmatullah Alaih Mazaar. And avoided the king’s visit in this manner. When Sultan Allauddeen Khilji got to know about this he was annoyed with Hazrat Abul Hassan Amir Khusro Rehmatullah Alaih to which he sent a reply “to annoy the ruling king would incur loss of life, however to annoy the peer would incur loss of Imaan.”
Sultan Allauddeen Khilji was satisfied with this answer.
Hazrat Abul Hassan Amir Khusru Rehmatullah Alaih would recite 7 chapters in Namaaz e Tahajud in the end of the month and would weep a lot. He would observe fast all around the year.
Hazrat Amir Khurd Rehmatullah Alaih writes in ‘Siyarul Aulia’: that "Immediately when Khusro Rehmatullah Alaih arrived to Delhi he went to the grave of His Holiness Hazrat Syed Nizamuddin Aulia Rehmatullah Alaih, where he blackend his face and rolled over in dust in utter grief tearing his garments." Six months after the event in the same year on 18th shawwal 725H/1325 A.D. on the same day His Holiness broken-hearted disciple Hazrat Amir Khusro Rehmatullah Alaih left this enchanting world of colours and conflicts “Inna Lillahi va Inna Ilaihi Raajiuun”. And his Mazaar is at the feet of Hazrat Nizamuddeen Auliya Mehboobe Ilahi Rehmatullah Alaih.
Writings and Works:
Works of Khusro Rehmatullah Alaih can be classified into four categories–Diwan work, romantic work, historical work and prose works. Khusro Rehmatullah Alaih was well conversant in Arabic Persian and Hindi. He was proud of it. He is also famous for many verse-riddles, sayings, puzzles and ghazals. His Persian–Hindi dictionary entitled Khalikbari is also a famous work. He is considered a symbol of the integrated culture of India.
I. Diwans (Collection of ghazals, lyrical poems, panegerics elegies, etc.)
1) Tohfat-us-Sighar (Gift of Youth) poem written between the 16th and 19th year of his age. Compiled in 672 A.H./1272 A.D.
2) Wasthul Hayath (Meridian of life): Poems written between 19th and 24th year of his age. compiled in 683 A.H./1283 A.D.
3) Ghurrathul – Kamal (Prime of perfection): The most important of the five Diwans containing poems written between the 34th and 43rd year of his age. compiled in 694 A.H./1294 A.D.
4) Baqiya Naqiya (Remnants of Purity): Compiled in his 64th year of his age in 716 A.H./1316 A.D
5) Nihayatul Kamal (Pinacle of Perfection): The last collection of poems compiled in 725 A.H./1325 A.D
II. Masnawis: The five masnawis modelled on the Khamsa (five masnawis) of Ilyas bin Yusuf Nizami Ganjavi (541 A.H./602 A.H./1114 A.D./1202 A.D.) and consisting of:
1) Matlaul - Anwar (Dawn of lights) on ethics and morals.
2) Khusro - Shirin, a legendary love story.
3) Majnun-o-Laila, also legendary love story.
4) Aina-e-Sikandari (Mirror of Alexander) on events in the life of Alexander the great.
5) Hasht Behisth (Eight Paradises) Stories told by Princesses with an introduction.
The first three of these Masnawis were compiled in 699 A.H./1299 A.D. and the last two in 701 A.H./1301 A.D. and 702 A.H./1302 A.D. respectively.
III. Historical Masnawis:
1) Qiran-us-Sadain (conjuction of two auspicious stars) composed at the request of Moizuddin Kaiqabad (687 A.H./1287-690 A.H./1290 A.D.) After the poets return from Awadh, the main theme being the encounter of kaiqabad and his father, Bughra Khan, Governor of Lakhnawti their meeting and final reconciliation. Compiled in 689 A.H./1289 A.D.
2) Mifta-ul-Futuh (Key of victories): Describes the four victories of Jalaluddin Firoze Khilji (690 A.H./1290 A.D.-695 A.H./1295 A.D) in of one year. Compiled in 691 A.H./1291 A.D
3) Ashiqe (Duval Rani And Khizer Khan): Story of love of Khizer Khan for Duval Rani and its tragic end, completed in 715 A.H./1315 A.D. but with a chapter added later.
4) Nuh Sipehr (Nine Skies): Panegyrics to Mubarak Shah Khilji (716 A.H./1316 A.D.-720 A.H./1320 A.D.) divided into nine parts of unequal lengths, each called a sipehr, and describing the buildings constructed by Mubarak Shah. Compiled in 718 A.H./1318 A.D.
5) Tughlaq Nama: Accounts of the victories of Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq and a short history of his reign. Compiled in 725 A.H./1325 A.D.
IV. Prose Works:
1) Khazainul-Futuh (Treasuries of Victories): Contains s short history of reign of the Allauddin Khilji in which the events that took place between 695 A.H./1295 A.D. and 711 A.H./1311 A.D. are recorded. Compiled in 711 A.H./1311 A.D.
2) Afzalul Fawaed (Greatest of Blessings): Containing the teachings of His Holiness Hazrat Nizamuddin Aulia (R.A.) (637 A.H./1237 A.D.-725 A.H./1325 A.D.) with dates of his meetings with the master between 714 A.H./1314 A.D and 719 A.H./1319 A.D.
3) Ejaz-e-Khusravi (Inspiration of Khusro): Containing five manuals on the art of writing prose and poetry and including some of his early letters to his friends. The first four manuals were compiled in 683 A.H./1283 A.D. and the last in 720 A.H./1320 A.D.
One of famous kalam of Amir Khusro Rehmatullah Alaih
Chhap tilak sab cheeni ray mosay naina milaikay
Chhap tilak sab cheeni ray mosay naina milaikay
Prem bhatee ka madhva pilaikay
Matvali kar leeni ray mosay naina milaikay
Gori gori bayyan, hari hari churiyan
Bayyan pakar dhar leeni ray mosay naina milaikay
Bal bal jaaon mein toray rang rajwa
Apni see kar leeni ray mosay naina milaikay
Khusrau Nijaam kay bal bal jayyiye
Mohay Suhaagan keeni ray mosay naina milaikay
Chhap tilak sab cheeni ray mosay naina milaikay
You've taken away my looks, my identity, by just a glance.
By making me drink the wine of love-potion,
You've intoxicated me by just a glance;
My fair, delicate wrists with green bangles in them,
Have been held tightly by you with just a glance.
I give my life to you, Oh my cloth-dyer,
You've dyed me in yourself, by just a glance.
I give my whole life to you Oh, Nijam,
You've made me your bride, by just a glance.
Last edited by shaikh_samee; 06-09-2012 at 01:17 PM. Reason: add inforamtion & change title
Major life events in chronological order
1253 Khusro was born in Patiali near Etah in what is today the state of Uttar Pradesh in northern India. His father Amir Saifuddin came from Balkh in modern day Afghanistan and his mother hailed from Delhi.
1260 After the death of his father, Khusro went to Delhi with his mother.
1271 Khusro compiled his first divan of poetry, “Tuhfatus-Sighr”.
1272 Khusro got his first job as court poet with King Balban’s nephew Malik Chhajju.
1276 Khusro started working as a poet with Bughra Khan (Balban’s son).
1279 While writing his second divan, Wastul-Hayat, Khusrau visited Bengal.
1281 Employed by Sultan Mohammad (Balban’s second son) and went to Multan with him.
1285 Khusro participated as a soldier in the war against the invading Mongols. He was taken prisoner, but escaped.
1287 Khusro went to Awadh with Ameer Ali Hatim (another patron).
1288 His first mathnavi, “Qiranus-Sa’dain” was completed.
1290 When Jalal ud din Firuz Khilji came to power, Khusro’s second mathnavi, “Miftahul Futooh” was ready.
1294 His third divan “Ghurratul-Kamal” was complete.
1295 Ala ud din Khilji (sometimes spelled “Khalji”) came to power and invaded Devagiri and Gujarat.
1298 Khusro completed his “Khamsa-e-Nizami”.
1301 Khilji attacked Ranthambhor, Chittor, Malwa and other places, and Khusro remained with the king in order to write chronicles.
1310 Khusro became close to Nizamuddin Auliya, and completed Khazain-ul-Futuh.
1315 Alauddin Khilji died. Khusro completed the mathnavi “Duval Rani-Khizr Khan” (a romantic poem).
1316 Qutb ud din Mubarak Shah became the king, and the fourth historical mathnavi “Noh-Sepehr” was completed.
1321 Mubarak Khilji (sometimes spelled “Mubarak Khalji”) was murdered and Ghiyath al-Din Tughluq came to power. Khusro started to write the Tughluqnama.
1325 Sultan Muhammad bin Tughluq came to power. Nizamuddin Auliya Rehmatullah Alaih died, and six months later so did Khusro Rehmatullah Alaih. Amir Khusro’s Rehmatullah Alaih tomb is next to that of his master in the Nizamuddin Dargah of Delhi.
Khusro the Royal poet.