8) Spending the night at Muzdalifa:
After sunset comes the hastening to Muzdalifa. The flags which mark the boundary of the Haram are passed; the evening darkness falls and torches are lit. In this fashion, Muzdalifa is reached where the Maghrib (the sunset prayer) and `Isha (evening prayer) are performed, and the night is spent. At dawn the morning prayers are performed.
According to the hadith, the Prophet performed the morning prayers at dawn at Muzdalifa, then rode his camel till he reached the Sacred Monument, faced the Qibla and remained standing until the morning light shone brightly in the sky. Just before sunrise he made an offering of a camel. Here reference to the words of the Holy Quran are relevant
"Then when Ye pour down from Mount Arafat, celebrate the praises of God at the Sacred Monument, and celebrate His `praises as He has directed you, even though before this you went astray" Spending the night at Muzdalifa is regarded as an obligation by some `Ulama, while others consider it only as a Sunna. As for women and the weak, they are exempted by the Prophet from this night's stay at Muzdalifa.
9) The Day of Sacrifice:
It falls on the 10th of Dhul-Hijja and there are certain proceedings to be observed:
a) The throwing of the pebbles:
The Prophet, having celebrated the praises of God at the Sacred Mountain, came to upright stones called Jamarat al-'Aqaba threw at them-seven pebbles one after another, crying out with each pebble:"! Labbayka ! Allah Akbar!"
After completing the stoning he stopped calling out and said"May God bless this pilgrimage and forgive our sins.
The time of throwing these stones usually falls in the forenoon on the Day of Sacrifice, in accordance with the practice of the Prophet, and it is allowed up to the evening. As for stoning before sunrise, it is confined to boys, women, and those who are weak.
The stoning is symbolic for it refers to the stoning of Satan who is said to have been driven away by Ibrahim in this way
b) The Sacrifice:
After the throwing of the pebbles, the Prophet repaired to his house at Mina where he made his sacrificial offerings. Thousands of sheep, goats, and camels, are kept ready in Mind for sacrifice. Though there is no place specially prescribed for sacrifice in Mina, a rock at the west end of the valley is preferred for this purpose. On this day, the 10th of Dhu'l-Hijja Muslims all over the World offer their sacrifice and celebrate ('Id al-Adha), or the Great Festival
c) Shaving of the head) or hair-cutting:
It is customary to have the head shaved or the hair cut on the Day of the Sacrifice. For this purpose there are barbers' booths in Mina . Both barbers and pilgrims observe certain rules during this process, such as turning towards the Qibla. For the pilgrim, shaving is preferable to hair-cutting as was stated by the Prophet and the `Ulama. For the Muslim doing the Umra, both practices stand on the same footing.
d) Tawaf al-Ifada
According to a tradition of Jabir, after the Apostle of God had made his sacrificial offerings he mounted and rode to the Ka'ba. There he performed the circumambulation called Tawaf al Ifada and prayed the noon prayers in Mecca.
This circumambulation is an indispensable feature of the Hajj according to the `Ulama, and they agree that it is best to perform it on the Day of Sacrifice after the morning, the shaving, and the sacrifice. Even so, they believe that doing it later, i.e. in the Days of al-Tashriq, or even later; is still permissible.
The sequence of some of these observances and Tawaf al-Ifada can be changed it is possible to shave before throwing, or to shave before slaughtering.
According to the Apostle of God these ceremonies are only limited as to time in so far as they must be performed on the 10th of Dhul Hijja.
If the pilgrim is a mufrid or Muqrin - his Hajj ends with Tawaf al-Ifada, and he need not repeat the hastening between Safa and Marwa. If he is a Mutamatti' he should repeat this and he should do well not to rush his Tawaf al-I fada.
After having the head shaved, or the hair cut, the pilgrim abandons Ihram with the exception of copulation. After the Tawaf al-Ifada and the hastening between Safa and marwa, in the case of Mutamatti' and after this Tawaf only in the case of a Mufrid or Muhrin, the pilgrim assumes a complete state of Ihlal- or secularity.
10) The return to Mina:
A'isha said that the Messenger of God returned to Mina after Tawaf al-Ifada and remained there the remainder of the Days of al Tashriq [ The Days of al-Tashriq are the 11th, 12th and 13th of DhuI- Hijja.].The casting of the pebbles at the three stone is resumed, seven pebbles being thrown at each. All the pilgrims, with few exceptions, have to repair to Minato spend these three days, and to complete the ceremony of throwing the pebbles, at the same time crying out "Allah Akbar."
The stoning, in these days, usually takes place after sunset.
11. The farewell Tawaf:
Finally, the farewell circuit of the Ka'ba is performed. Ibn `Abbas reported that the Prophet insisted that no pilgrim should leave Mecca without having made his final Tawaf. To do this, the pilgrim goes to al-Tan'im on the border of the sacred territory ; and resumes the lhram.
With these ceremonies completed, the pilgrimage proper is at an end. Some days later pilgrims leave Mecca for Medina to visit the Mosque of the Prophet.
Some Rules Concerning the Hajj
God has made clear in the Quran the status of the pilgrim who continues the Umra into the Hajj.
"If any one wishes to continue the `Umra into the Hajj! He must make an offering, such as he can afford; but if he cannot afford it, he should fast three days during the Hajj and seven days on his return, making ten days in all. This is for those whose household is not in tile precincts of the Sacred House. And fear God and know that God is strict in punishment".
This implies three things:
a. Firstly, that the Muslim who wishes to continue the Umra into the Hajj and relieve himself of the restrictions of consecration from the end of his hastening between Safa and Marwa till he assumes Ihram for the Hajj, must make an offering of at least a sheep, and at most a camel. He is not to offer it until he enters into the Jhram for the hajj, and not in the period in between `Umra and Hajj. In fact, he is not called Mutamatti' until he actually continues the `Umra into the Hajj, and not before.
If he is unable to make an offering, or he cannot afford it, he has to fast three days during the period of the Hajj, i.e. while he is a Muhrim. The fasting is to start on the 8th of Dhu'l-Hijja and go on till the end of the halt on Mount Arafat.
If he is incapable of fasting these three days, he has to put it off until the end of the days of al-Tashriq, then fast three days before proceeding to the Tawaf al-Ifada.
b. After his return home he has to fast seven days more, so as to complete ten days fasting in accordance with the directions of Allah in the above verse of the Quran.
c. This offering or fasting as a substitute for the period during which he frees himself from Ihram for the Hajj is to be observed only by those whose household is not in the precincts of Mecca - in other words it does not apply to the inhabitants of Mecca itself.
1. If the Muhrim finds himself faced with any unforeseen difficulty or emergency, he has to comply with God's words:
"But if ye are prevented (from completing it), send an offering for sacrifice, such as you are capable of."
Under such obstacles one may include the blocking of one's way by the enemy. This hap pened to the Prophet when he set out of Madina with some of the companions intending to per form the `Umra. The infidels stood in his way', and he was unable to proceed. He thus slaughtered the camel he meant for sacrifice with his companions to Madina.
In the category of these hindrances one may consider physical disability resulting from illness, accidents, and unexpected difficulties such as loss of one's way, running short of provision for the journey, imprisonment or the failure of the ship to reach port in due time.
2. .In all these cases the Muhrim has to make an offering, abandon his Ihram, return home and put off his Hajj for a future date.
3. If a Muhrim is forced to shave his head during the state of Ihram because of scalp illness or severe headache, he can do so provided that he observes the following directions of Allah "And if any of you is ill or has an ailment in his scalp (necessitating shaving) he should in compensation, either fast, or feed the poor, or offer sacrifice."
Thus, according to the explanation of the Prophet, the Muhrim has to fast three days, or offer a sacrifice to the poor, or feed six separate poor people.
4. If, through reasons of health, one is obliged to wear sewn or tightly tailored clothing for fear of cold or heat, he has to observe the rules followed by the Muhrim who suffers from scalp disease. Thus he is to fast three days, or offer a sacrifice, or feed six different poor persons.
5. The pilgrim has to drink as much as he can from the blessed waters of Zamzam, a well in the Sacred House.
Visiting the Mosque of the Prophet
The Prophet (God's Prayer and Peace be upon him) highly recommended the visit to three mosques, namely the Sacred House (the Ka'ba) in Mecca, his own in Medina, and the Masjid al-Aqsa in Jerusalem.
On completing the rites of the Hajj, the pilgrim would do well to set out towards the Mosque of the Prophet at Madina, with its five minarets, and the green dome of the Mausoleum of the Apostle of God.
The moment he steps into this Mosque he has to call to mind all that he knows of the glorious deeds of the Prophet and of his spiritual guidance. He is to remember that in it the Prophet taught Muslims about the tenets of their faith and inculcated in them the principles of brotherhood, justice and equality.
On entering the mosque the pilgrim must pray two Rak'as, then proceed to the Mausoleum of the Prophet at which he says these words in greeting:
"Peace be upon you, O Messenger of God. I testify that there is no God but Allah, and that you are his Apostle".
It is desirable that the visitor turn eastwards a little to salute the tomb of the Caliph Abu Bakr, and then the tomb of the Caliph Umar Ibn al-Khattab.
With the visit the pilgrim's sense of devotion is enhanced by recalling the memories of the glory of Islam. In this sense, this Mosque serves as another fount of inspiration to Muslims throughout the world.