HAZRAT UTHMAN GHANI (Radi Allahu Anhu)
The Third Caliph of Islam
Before passed away, Sayyiduna Umar (radi Allahu anhu) appointed a six-man Committee to elect his successor from among themselves. After long discussions and consultation, they elected Sayyiduna 'Uthman bin Affan (radi Allahu anhu) as the third Caliph of Islam.
Sayyiduna 'Uthman (radi Allahu anhu) belonged to the Ummayah tribe of the Quraish. He was a very rich cloth merchant. He was known as "Al Ghani" or "The Generous." His father's name was Affan and his mother was Urwa. His patronymic (Kunyat) is Abu ‘Amr.
He accepted Islam at the invitation of Sayyiduna Abu Bakr (radi Allahu anhu) and migrated to Abyssinia with his wife, Sayyadah Ruqayyah (radi Allahu anha), who was also the daughter of Sayyiduna Rasulullah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam).
After she passed away, he married Sayyadah Umme Kulthum (radi Allahu anha), another daughter of Sayyiduna Rasulullah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam). Because of this, he earned the title "Zun Noorain" or "Possessor of Two Lights." He took part in all the battles with Sayyiduna Rasulullah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) except the Battle of Badr.
He was the third Khalifah amongst those known as the Khulafah-ur-Rashidin. He is also known as ‘Sahib-ul-Hijratain’ (the one who migrated twice) because he immigrated first to Habshah (Ethiopia) and then to Madina-tul-Munawwarah.
During the Khilaafat of Sayyiduna 'Uthman (radi Allahu anhu), the rebellion in Azerbhaijaan and Armenia was silenced. Sayyiduna Mu'awiyah (radi Allahu anhu), with the help of Sayyiduna Abi Sarah (radi Allahu anhu), captured Cyprus by naval attack and brought it under Islamic rule. Vast areas of North Africa including Tripoli, Tunisia and Morocco were also brought under the Islamic rule.
The Romans, although defeated several times by the Muslims in the past, made another attempt, during the Khilaafat of Sayyiduna 'Uthman (radi Allahu anhu), to recapture the lands they had already lost. Constantine, the Emperor of Rome, made great preparations and attacked Alexandria with a naval fleet five to six thousand strong. But, the Romans were defeated by the Muslim naval forces under the command of Sayyiduna Abi Sarah and Sayyiduna Mu'awiyah (radi Allahu anhuma).
The Governors of the provinces, appointed by Sayyiduna Umar (radi Allahu anhu), were removed and replaced by members of the new Caliph's clan. The majority of the new governors were inspired by worldly means rather than by piety and interests of their subjects. People started to demand the removal of these Governors, but the Caliph did not respond to their appeals. Delegates mainly from Iraq and Egypt, submitted their demands to the Caliph. The situation, however got out of control.
In the turmoil, Sayyiduna 'Uthman (radi Allahu anhu) himself was made Shaheed by rebels while he was reading the Holy Koran inside his house. This happened on Friday, the 18th of Zil Hajj in 35 A.H.. He was 84 years old.
Sayyiduna 'Uthman (radi Allah anhu) was a very simple and very kind person. His simplicity and kindness did not alow him to take strong action against the trouble makers and rioters. Above all, because of his simple-mindedness, his administration was not as disciplined as it had been during the Khilaafat of Sayyiduna Umar (radi Allahu anhu).
Sayyiduna 'Uthman (radi Allahu anhu) was a generous man. He used to spend a lot of money for Islam and to free the slaves. He was a great and pious man who feared and loved Almighty Allah and Sayyiduna Rasulullah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) above everything else. Although he was very rich, his living was very simple. He did not indulge in luxury. He was ever mindful of death. Major parts of the night were spent in Salaah. He also fasted every second or third day.
THE HOLY Koran
A major achievement of Sayyiduna 'Uthman (radi Allahu anhu) was the duplication of the Holy Koran from the records kept by Sayyiduna Abu Bakr (radi Allahu anhu), who handed it to Sayyiduna Umar (radi Allahu anhu), who then handed it to his daughter, Sayyadah Hafsa (radi Allahu anha), the wife of Sayyiduna Rasulullah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam).
Sayyiduna 'Uthman (Radi Allahu anhu) made copies of the Holy Koran from the original and sent it to capitals such as Kufa, Damascus, Makkatul Mukarramah and Basrah, each accompanied by a Sahabi for the guidance of the readers.
Purchased Paradise Twice
Amir-ul-Muminin Sayyiduna ‘Usman Al-Ghani’s radi Allahu anhu rank is very high. In his life, he radi Allahu anhu bought paradise twice from the Intercessor of the Ummah, the Owner of Jannah, the Merciful Prophet sallal laahu alaihi wasallam. The first time, he radi Allahu anhu purchased a well called ‘Bir-e-Rumah’ from a Jew and endowed it for the Muslims to drink from it. The second time was during the Battle of ‘Usrat. The event is narrated in Sunan Al-Tirmizi as follows:
Sayyiduna ‘Abd-ur-Rahman bin Khabbab Radi Allahu anhu, has narrated, ‘I was in the presence of, the Prophet sallal laahu alaihi wasallam and he sallal laahu alaihi wasallam was motivating (Inspiring others to donate charity for the sake of Allah azwajal) [the Sahabah] for the preparation of the battle of Tabuk. Sayyiduna ‘Usman bin ‘Affan Radi Allahu anhu stood up and said ‘Ya Rasulullah sallal laahu alaihi wasallam I take it upon myself to donate 100 camels along with saddles and other related provisions.’
The Rasul Allah sallal laahu alaihi wasallam then repeated his inspirational efforts. Sayyiduna ‘Usman bin ‘Affan Radi Allahu anhu stood up again and said, ‘Ya Rasulullah sallal laahu alaihi wasallam! I bear the responsibility of donating 200 camels with all the relevant provisions.’ The Prophet sallal laahu alaihi wasallam iterated his efforts again. Amir-ul-Muminin Sayyiduna ‘Usman Al-Ghani’s Radi Allahu anhu stood up again and said, ‘Ya Rasulullah sallal laahu alaihi wasallam! I take the responsibility of [donating] 300 camels with all the provisions.’
The narrator continues: I saw that when Mustafa sallal laahu alaihi wasallam heard this, he sallal laahu alaihi wasallam came down from his refulgent pulpit and proclaimed twice, ‘From today, whatever ‘Usman Radi Allahu anhu does, there will be no accountability about it.’ (Jami’Tirmizi, pp. 391, vol. 5, Hadis 3720)
950 Camels and 50 Horses
These days we see some people only promise to give when they see others spending in the path of Allah azwajal. However, when the occasion actually comes for giving the money, they find it extremely difficult to come through. Some do not even give the amount they committed.
May we be sacrificed on the generosity of the Holy Prophet’s devotee, the Leader in Generosity, the highly modest ‘Usman Al-Ghani radi Allahu anhu who gave more than what he radi Allahu anhu announced initially.
Commenting on the Hadis Mufti Ahmad Yar Khan rehmatullah alaih has stated, ‘Bear in mind that this was his announcement but when it [actually] came to give, he radi Allahu anhu actually gave 950 camels, 50 horses and 1000 Ashrafis (gold coins). Later on, he radi Allahu anhu added another 10,000 Ashrafis.’
Mufti Ahmad Yar Khan rehmatullah alaih further goes on to say, ‘Note that he radi Allahu anhu initially committed a 100, then 200 and then 300; i.e. 600 camels in all.’ (Mirat-ul Manajih, pp. 395, vol. 8)
Definition of Karamah (Marvel)
Dear Islamic brothers! It is now clear that Amir-ul-Muminin Sayyiduna ‘Usman Al-Ghani Radi Allahu anhu was a man on whose hands Karamah (marvel) manifested; which is why he radi Allahu anhu warned that person on his lustful gaze.
Irhas is the occurrence of a prodigy atypical to norms through a Prophet before [the declaration of] his Prophethood. If a similar atypical prodigy occurs through a Wali, then it is called Karamah. It is called Ma’unat if exhibited by a Mumin. If such wonder happens in favour of a Kafir or a sinner, then it is termed as Istidraj and if it is against him then it is known as Ihanat.
Punishment for Disrespect
Shaykh ‘Abdullah bin ‘Umar Radi Allahu anhu quotes: Amir-ul-Muminin Sayyiduna ‘Usman Al-Ghani Radi Allahu anhu was delivering a sermon on the pulpit in Masjid-un-Nabawi when suddenly a wretched and wicked man named ‘Jihjah Ghifari’ stood up, snatched the staff from his sacred hand and broke it. Allah azwajal punished that insolent for his impudence; he suffered a disease of ‘Akilah’ (Akilah is a sort of disease which affects human flesh and flesh starts separating itself from the body.) in his hand and died of this punishment within a year. (Dalail-un-Nubuwwah la Abi Nu’aim, pp. 145, vol. 2)
Disclosed the Whereabouts of his Burial
Shaykh Imam Malik rehmatullah alaih says: Amir-ul-Muminin Sayyiduna ‘Usman Al-Ghani Radi Allahu anhu once visited a part of ‘Jannat-ul-Baqi’, the graveyard in Madina-tul-Munawwarah that is known as ‘Hash-shi-Kaukab.’ Radi Allahu anhu stood over there at a spot and said, ‘A person will be buried here very soon.’
Sometime later, He Radi Allahu anhu was martyred and the rebels created such a clamour and discord at his funeral that he could not be buried near the Resplendent Tomb (Raudah) nor in the cemetery of Jannat-ul-Baqi’ where the other Sahabah were buried; instead, he Radi Allahu anhu was buried at a place that lies afar and is known as ‘Hash-shi-Kaukab.’ No one could even imagine [that he would be buried there] as no graves were present in that area [at that time]. (Ar-Riyad-un-Nadarah fi Manaqib-il-‘Asharah, pp. 41, vol. 3)
An Unknown Voice after Martyrdom
Shaykh ‘Adi bin Hatim Radi Allahu anhu has stated that on the day when Sayyiduna ‘Usman Al-Ghani Radi Allahu anhu was martyred, I heard with my very ears that a herald was saying aloud, ‘Give ‘Usman Al-Ghani Radi Allahu anhu the glad tidings of comfort and fragrance, tell him the delightful news about meeting with the Lord who is not displeased; also give him the glad tidings of forgiveness and the pleasure of his Deity.’
Shaykh ‘Adi bin Hatim Radi Allahu anhu continues that he Radi Allahu anhu glanced here and there, and behind but he did not see anyone. (Tarikh-e-Dimishq, pp. 355, vol. 37, Shawahid-un-Nubuwwah, p. 209)
Crowd of Angels During Burial
It has been reported that ‘Usman Al-Ghani Radi Allahu anhu could not be buried for three days due to the commotion of the rioters. After which, some of his devotees took his body and reached Jannat-ul-Baqi’ in the darkness of the night. They were digging the grave when suddenly a large number of riders entered Jannat-ul-Baqi’. The devotees got frightened. The riders announced loudly, ‘Do not fear, we are here to take part in his burial.’ After hearing this, people’s fear abated and Sayyiduna ‘Usman Al-Ghani Radi Allahu anhu was buried in peace. After returning from the graveyard the Sahabah (the devotees) swore that certainly, the riders were angels. (Shawahid-un-Nubuwwah, p. 209)