Zakat ke Masail Aur Zakat Calculator (زکٰوۃ کے مسایل)
Allah Ta’ala states, “O Believers! Give something of your pure earnings …” (Surah Baqarah, Verse 267).
To spend from lawfully earned income in the path of Allah Ta’ala is called ‘Infaq’; there are two types of spending, compulsory and voluntary. Compulsory Spending This includes Poor-Due (Zakat), compulsory charity (Fitr), and all other charity which is compulsory on those who have the means and the wealth.
Types of Charity
There are two types of charity. The first is compulsory charity which includes Poor-due (Zakat), one‐tenth (‘Ushr), Fitr and charity of evil eye (Sadqa e Nazar) etc. The other type of charity is voluntary which includes all charity that is not included in compulsory charity.
Poor-Due (Zakat)According to the dictionary, the word “Zakat” has two meanings. One of its meanings is ‘clean’, ‘pure’ or ‘to be clean’ or ‘to purify’. The other meaning is to ‘grow’, ‘expand’ and ‘multiply’. Because payment of Zakat results in increased wealth, the wealth given in the
path of Allah Ta’ala is called Zakat.
In religious terms, Zakat means to take a percentage of your wealth that has been decided by Islamic law, and to make a poor person the owner of that wealth.
Whom is Zakat Compulsory Upon?
Zakat is compulsory upon all sane, mature, free Muslims brother & sisters who own more than the minimum amount (Nisaab) after spending on his necessities, and a full year has passed with that wealth in his possession.
The Minimum Amount (Nisaab) for Zakat
Zakat is compulsory, only if a person owns equal to or more than the ‘’Nisab’’ Zakat is not payable if a person owns less than that. The Nisab for gold is 7.5 tolas (93.312 grams), and the Nisab for Silver is 52.5 tolas (653.184 grams), that it will be Fardh to give Zakah at the rate of 2.5% or one fortieth. (On Rs. 100/- Zakat will be 2.50)
To Whom Should Zakat be given
Allah Ta’ala has given details in the Holy Qur’an about the classifications of people to whom Zakat should be given. He states,
“The poor‐due (Zakat) is only for those who are poor and needy and those who collect it, and for those whose hearts are to be conciliated for Islam, and for the freeing of slaves, and for debtors, and for spending in the way of Allah and for the traveller. This has been ordained by Allah. And Allah is Knowing, Wise.” (Surah Taubah Verse 60)
The following is a detailed description of the different classifications of people who are entitled to Zakat as mentioned in the verse quoted above:
Poor Person (Faqeer) :A poor person is one who has some possessions but not enough money to reach the qualifying threshold or Nisaab, nor does he have enough goods in his house to reach the level of Nisaab. Or he might have enough items in his house to reach the level of Nisaab but some or all of the property is part of his basic necessities.
Needy (Miskeen) :‘Miskeen’ is the person who has nothing. This means that the dust that is on him is his blanket and bed.
Collector (‘Aamil) : An ‘Aamil is that person who is appointed by the Leader of Muslims to collect Zakat. This person is spending his time and effort in this work and therefore he is entitled to be paid for his work.
Console the Hearts (Mu‐allifatil Quloob) : When Islam gained power, the classification of “Mu‐allifatil Quloob” was cancelled for all, including the companions.
Freeing Slaves (Riqab e Makatib) :This refers to those slaves who are able to pay some money and gain freedom.
Person in Debt (Ghaarim/Qarzdaar) :It is allowed to give Zakat to one in debt. He should not have more than the Nisaab if he pays off his debts with what he has.
In the Path of Allah Ta’ala (Fee Sabee‐Lillah) : There are many ways that this can be done. It can be given to a person going for Jihad (struggle in the path of Allah Ta’ala) to pay for his horse, weapons, armour and money for the journey. It can also be given to a pilgrim (Haji) who has been robbed of his money along the way, and now is in need of money to continue further. A student studying religion can also be given Zakat.
Traveller (Ibnis Sabeel/Musafir) :This means the traveller who has run out of supplies and/or money, even if he has wealth at his home. It is allowed for such a person to collect Zakat.
It is not permissible for one to distribute ‘zakah’ dues to those blood-relatives whose financial obligations and upkeep is their responsibility in Shariah….for example one cannot give from one zakah dues to one’s parents, one’s wives, one’s children, etc.
But if the blood-relative is not amongst those whose financial upkeep is one’s responsibility like ones adult brothers and sisters, one’s aunts and uncles, one’s cousins, etc….then such blood-relatives, if they are needy or are not able to meet their expenses, have the absolute first right that zakah be distributed to them.
The Messenger of Allah Sallalahu Alaihi Wasallam said that those who have the biggest right that ‘zakah’ or ‘sadaqah’ should be spent on them are the near relatives; and one who spends of their ‘zakah’ or ‘sadaqah’ dues on their relatives will have a double reward from their Lord! One reward for fulfilling their ‘zakah’ obligations, and another reward for helping their relatives. (Al-Tirmidhi Hadith 1939 Narrated by Sulayman ibn Amir)
Allah's Messenger Sallalahu Alaihi Wasallam said, "Charity given to a poor man is just charity, but when given to a relative it serves a double purpose, being both charity and a connecting link."
If there are poor and underprivileged people amongst our relatives, then it is essential for us to find them and help them because the Qur’an has stated that their right is greater than other needy people. In the same manner, we should spend on orphans, the needy and the travellers. Amongst them, we should especially spend on those students who leave their homes, towns, friends and parents in the quest for knowledge and are guests of Rasool Allah Sallalahu Alaihi Wasallam.
Some Important Issues Regarding Zakat
In Shar’iah (Islamic Law), Zakat means to take a certain percentage of your wealth that had been decided by Shar’iah, and to make poor Muslims owners of that wealth.
* The goods that are kept for business should be evaluated. If the value is equal to or greater than the equivalent of 7.5 tolas (93.312 grams) of gold or 52.5 tolas (653.184 grams) of silver, then Zakat must be paid on these goods. Goods for business include all goods, whether it is a manufacturing plant or livestock. If the items are kept for business, once a full year has passed, Zakat is payable on them.
* If business inventory does not exceed the Nisaab, but you have gold, silver, cash etc. which, if totalled, exceeds the Nisaab then Zakat is payable.
* Zakat is not payable on the value of the house or shop that is rented to another person. However, Zakat is payable on the money that is received as rent after it has been in your possession for one year. If the owner has more than the value of Nisaab beforehand, then the rent money is added to his assets and is not calculated separately. The rent money must be added to the other possessions and Zakat must be paid on all.
* Zakat is not payable on fixtures and fittings in a shop i.e. all the items that are used to help sell goods but are not actually for sale. For example, cabinets, shelves, counter, heater, air conditioner, freezer, cash register, display equipment etc. All these things are in the store but are not sold and are not considered as inventory, and therefore, Zakat is not payable on them.
* There is no Zakat on pearls or precious stones, even if you have many of them. However, if they are for business purposes, then Zakat is necessary.
* One year passing means according to the lunar calendar (cycle of the moon). Zakat must be paid if a person had more than the Nisaab at the beginning of the year and at the end of the year, but did not have more than the Nisaab in the middle part of the year.
* When paying Zakat or separating the wealth, it is a condition that the intention (Niyyah) must be for paying Zakat. Intention means that if asked, one can definitely say that this is for Zakat.
* If you give voluntary charity (Sadqa / Khairaat) all year and then say that ‘All that I gave is Zakat’, this will not be counted as Zakat. Separating the Zakat money will not free you from your obligation until you make a poor person the owner of that wealth and give it to him. If you die before handing the Zakat to a poor person, the Zakat is not annulled and still needs to be paid.
* Zakat money cannot be used for burial or funeral expenses or to build a mosque because a poor person has not been given ownership of that money. If it is essential to use the Zakat money for those purposes then the way to do this is to make a poor person the owner of that wealth, and then he donates it and both people will be rewarded. It is reported in a Hadith that if the wealth passes through a hundred hands then they will all receive the same reward and there will be no reduction in the reward of the original giver.
* It is not necessary to tell a poor person that what is being given is Zakat money; only the intention is necessary on the part of the person giving the Zakat. Even if the poor person is told that this is a loan and the intention is Zakat then the obligation of Zakat will be fulfilled.
* Similarly, if the receiver is told that this is a gift, present, Eid gift to children etc, the Zakat will be fulfilled. Some poor people do not like to take Zakat money, therefore do not use the word Zakat, but make the intention in your heart.
* As well as gold and silver, if the value of any business inventory exceeds the Nisaab, then Zakat is payable on that also – meaning 2.5% of the value of the inventory must be given as Zakat.
What Things is Zakat Not Payable On?
There are certain things upon which Zakat is not payable, no matter how much is owned; details are as follows: Primary residence (the house that you live in), pearls, rubies and all similar jewellery, the animals (camels, cows, bulls etc) which are raised for farming, machinery and tools in a factory/workshop, computers that are used for accounting work, calculators, the factory building itself, furniture that is used in the factory/workshop, stationery supplies, shop building, animals on a dairy farm, expensive items that are kept in the home as souvenirs or for remembrance, fish that are kept in a pool or stream for hobby, animals that are reared for personal use, motorbikes for travelling, cars, buses, vehicles that are rented to enable you to work i.e. bicycle, rickshaw, taxi, bus, truck etc. are not liable for Zakat to be paid on them, (however, Zakat must be paid on the income that is earned from them if it exceeds the Nisaab). There is also no Zakat on clothes for personal use, coat/jacket, sheets and blankets, cap, shoes, watch, home furniture, bed and writing tools etc, no matter how expensive these things are.
In short, Zakat is payable on the things that are bought and sold for business purposes. There is no Zakat on the equipment and tools etc that help you carry out your business, nor is there Zakat on household properties that are used daily.
Zakat money can not be given to mosque, used for burial of the dead, make a bridge, make roads, dog wells, or to buy books to distribute.
It is not permissible to give Kafir.
Q. Can we give zakat to any one who is sayyed?
Ans. Zakāt and Sadaqah is the filth in one’s wealth which is given out to purify ones earning. The honour of Rasulullah salallahu alayhi wasallam and his noble family should not be tainted by the filth of our wealth. For this reason, it is not permissible to give zakāt to a sayyid.
If some Sayyid is in need then one should use moneys other than Zakāt or Sadaqah. It will be a means of immense reward.
Last edited by shaikh_samee; 07-07-2014 at 09:20 AM.
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