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Thread: Super Earth

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    Default Super Earth

    First super-Earth found

    Mass and radius values for transiting super-Earths in context of other detected exoplanets and selected composition models.

    The first super-Earths were discovered by Aleksander Wolszczan and Dale Frail around the pulsar PSR B1257+12 in 1991. The two outer planets of the system have masses approximately 4 times Earth, too small to be gas giants.
    The first super-Earth around a main sequence star was discovered by a team under Eugenio Rivera in 2005. It orbits Gliese 876 and received the designation Gliese 876 d (two Jupiter sized gas giants had previously been discovered in that system). It has an estimated mass of 7.5 Earth masses and a very short orbital period of just about 2 days. Due to the proximity of Gliese 876 d to its host star (a red dwarf), it may have a surface temperature of 430–650 kelvin[9] and may support liquid water.[10]
    exoplanetwater1209 - Super Earth

    Other super-Earths discovered in 2006

    Two further super-Earths were discovered in 2006, OGLE-2005-BLG-390Lb with a mass of 5.5 Earth masses, which was found by gravitational microlensing, and HD 69830 b with a mass of 10 Earth masses.[1]
    First super-Earth in habitable zone

    In April 2007, a team headed by Stephane Udry based in Switzerland announced the discovery of two new super-Earths around Gliese 581,[11] both on the edge of the habitable zone around the star where liquid water may be possible on the surface. With Gliese 581 c having a mass of at least 5 Earth masses and a distance from Gliese 581 of 0.073 astronomical units (AU; 6.8 million mi, 11 million km), it is on the "warm" edge of the habitable zone around Gliese 581 with an estimated mean temperature (without taking into consideration effects from an atmosphere) of −3 degrees Celsius with an albedo comparable to Venus and 40 degrees Celsius with an albedo comparable to Earth. Subsequent research suggests Gliese 581 c has likely suffered a runaway greenhouse effect like Venus, but that its sister planet, Gliese 581 d, does in fact lie within the star's habitable zone, with an orbit at 0.22 AU and a mass of 7.7 Earths.
    super earth illo eso - Super Earth
    Super-Earths found in 2008

    The smallest Super-Earth found to date is MOA-2007-BLG-192Lb was announced by astrophysicist David P. Bennett for the international MOA collaboration on June 2, 2008.[12][13] This planet has approximately 3.3 Earth masses and orbits a brown dwarf. It was detected by gravitational microlensing.
    In June 2008, European researchers announced the discovery of three super-Earths around the star HD 40307, a star that is only slightly less massive than our Sun. The planets have at least the following minimum masses: 4.2, 6.7, and 9.4 times Earth's. The planets were detected by the radial velocity method by the HARPS (High Accuracy Radial Velocity Planet Searcher) in Chile.[14]
    In addition, the same European research team announced a planet 7.5 times the mass of Earth orbiting the star HD 181433. This star also has a Jupiter-like planet that orbits every three years.[15]
    Super-Earths found in 2009


    Illustration of the inferred size of the super-Earth COROT-7b (center) in comparison with Earth and Neptune.


    Planet COROT-7b, with a mass estimated at 4.8 Earth masses and an orbital period of only 0.853 days, was announced on 3 February 2009. The density estimate obtained for COROT-7b points to a composition including rocky silicate minerals, similar to the four inner planets of Earth's solar system, a new and significant discovery.[16] COROT-7b, discovered right after HD 7924 b, is the first Super-Earth discovered that orbits a main sequence star that is G class or larger.[17]
    The discovery of Gliese 581 e with a minimum mass of 1.9 Earth masses was announced on April 21, 2009. It is the smallest extrasolar planet discovered around a normal star and the closest in mass to Earth. Being at an orbital distance of just 0.03 AU and orbiting its star in just 3.15 days, it is not in the habitable zone,[18] and may have 100 times more tidal heating than Jupiter’s volcanic satellite Io.[19]
    Additionally, Gliese 581 d, at 0.2 AU with a 67 day orbital period, has been confirmed to be within the habitable zone of the red dwarf star, making it the first exoplanet where the existence of liquid water is a real possibility.[18]
    A planet found in December 2009, GJ 1214 b, is 2.7 times as large as Earth and orbits a star much smaller and less luminous than our sun. "This planet probably does have liquid water," said David Charbonneau, a Harvard professor of astronomy and lead author of an article on the discovery.[20]
    By November 2009, a total of 30 Super-Earths have been discovered, 24 of which were first observed by HARPS.[21]
    Super-Earths found in 2010

    Discovered on January 5, 2010, a planet HD 156668 b with a minimum mass of 4.15 Earth masses, is the second least massive planet detected by the radial velocity method.[22] The only confirmed radial velocity planet smaller than this planet is Gliese 581 e at 1.9 Earth masses (see above). On August 24 astronomers using ESO’s HARPS instrument announced the discovery of a planetary system with up to seven planets orbiting a Sun-like star, HD 10180, one of which, although not yet confirmed, has an estimated minimum mass of 1.35 0.23 times that of Earth, which would be the lowest mass of any exoplanet found to date orbiting a main-sequence star.[23] Although unconfirmed, there is 98.6% probability that this planet does exist.[24]




    sept06 1 2 - Super Earth


    planet18 - Super Earth
    Last edited by EaGlE; 01-10-2010 at 10:04 AM.

  2. #2
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    Default Re: Super Earth

    Earth

    *~*~*~*ღ*~*~*~**~*~*~*ღ*~*~*~*

    2m4ccw6 - Super Earth

    *~*~*~*ღ*~*~*~**~*~*~*ღ*~*~*~*

  3. #3
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    Default Re: Super Earth

    Nice
    پھر یوں ہوا کے درد مجھے راس آ گیا

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    Default Re: Super Earth

    254311 151251481613107 100001847683469 313672 3952200 n - Super Earth

    I am so lonely, broken angel
    I am so lonely, listen to my heart

    One and only, broken angel
    Come and save me, before I fall apart

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    Default Re: Super Earth

    thanks for post and information

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